Diversity thesis philosophy

Diversity thesis philosophy

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Religious diversity is the fact that there are significant differences in religious belief and practice. It has always been recognized by people outside the smallest and most isolated communities.

But since early modern times, increasing information from travel, publishing, and emigration have forced thoughtful people to reflect more deeply on religious diversity. Roughly, pluralistic approaches to religious diversity say that, within bounds, one religion is as good as any other.

In contrast, exclusivist approaches say that only one religion is uniquely valuable. Finally, inclusivist theories try to steer a middle course by agreeing with exclusivism that one religion has the most value while also agreeing with pluralism that others still have significant religious value.

What values are at issue? Literature since focuses on the truth or rationality of religious teachings, the veridicality conformity with reality of religious experiences, salvific efficacy the ability to deliver whatever cure religion should provideand alleged directedness towards one and the same ultimate religious object. The exclusivist-inclusivist-pluralist trichotomy has become standard since the s.

Unfortunately, it is often used with some mix of the above values in mind, leaving it unclear exactly which values are diversity thesis philosophy. While this trichotomy is sometimes thought of in terms of general attitudes that a religious person may have towards other religions—approximately the attitudes of rejection, limited openness, and wide acceptance respectively—in this article they figure as theories concerning the facts of religious diversity.

Scholars distinguish seven aspects of religious traditions: the doctrinal and philosophical, the mythic and narrative, the ethical and legal, the ritual and practical, the experiential and emotional, the social and organizational, and the material and artistic. Smart Religious traditions differ along all these dimensions. These are the undisputed facts of religious communication thesis titles. It is arguably the doctrinal and philosophical aspects of a religion which are foundational, in that the other aspects can only be understood http://jubilee-newspaper.com/academic-essay/disgusting-experience-essay.html light of them.

Prothero; Yandell Scholarly study of a wide range of religions, and comparison and evaluation of them, was to thesis liverpool university large extent pioneered by Christian missionaries in the nineteenth century seeking to understand those whom they sought to convert.

NetlandTheories of religious diversity have largely been driven by attacks on and defenses of such claims, and discussions continue go here the realm of Christian theology.

Hick ch. All the theories discussed in this article are ways that usually religious people regard other religions, but here we discuss them abstractly, without descending much into the details of how they would be worked out in the teachings and practices of any one religion. Such would be the work of a religiously embedded and committed theology of religious diversity, not of a general philosophy of religious diversity.

Many people associate any sort of pluralist theory of religious diversity with a number of arguably good qualities. These qualities include but are not limited to: being humble, reasonable, kind, broad-minded, open-minded, informed, cosmopolitan, modern, properly appreciative of difference, non-bigoted, tolerant, being opposed to proselytizing attempts to convince those outside the religion to convert to itanti-colonialist, and anti-imperialist.

In contrast, any diversity thesis philosophy theory of religious diversity is associated with many arguably bad qualities.

These negative qualities include but are not limited to: being arrogant, unreasonable, mean, narrow-minded, closed-minded, uninformed, provincial, out of date, xenophobic, bigoted, intolerant, in favor of proselytism, colonialist, and imperialist. These, however, are mere associations; there seems to be no obvious entailments between the theories of religious diversity and the above qualities. In principle, it would seem that an exclusivist or inclusivist may have all or most of the good qualities, and one who accepts a theory of religious pluralism may have all or most of the bad qualities.

These connections between theory and character — which are believed by some to provide practical arguments for or objections to various theories — need to be argued for. But it is very rare for a scholar to go beyond merely assuming or asserting some sort of causal connection between the various theories about religious diversity and the above virtues and vices. A theory of religious pluralism says that all religions of some kind are the same in some valuable respect s. While this is compatible with some religion being the best in some other respect sthe theorists using this label have in mind that many religions are equal regarding the central value s of religion.

Legenhausen This would be the view of many naturalists, who hold that all religions are the product of human imagination, and fail to have most or all of the values claimed for them. Byrne ; Feuerbach Though naive pluralisms are not common amongst scholars in relevant fields, they are important to mention because they are entertained by many people as they begin to reflect on religious diversity.

An uninformed person, noting certain commonalities of religious belief and practice, may suppose that all religions are the same, namely, that there are no significant differences between religious traditions.

This naive pluralism is refuted by accurate information on religious source. Prothero This is because they cannot be empirically verified, that is, their truth or falsity is not known by way of observational evidence. There are three serious diversity thesis philosophy with verificationist pluralism.

First, some religious claims can be empirically confirmed or disconfirmed. Second, the claim that meaningfulness requires the possibility of empirical argumentative essay antigone has little to recommend it, and is self-refuting that is, the claim dissertation defense is not empirically verifiable.

Peterson et. While there are other sorts of negative naive pluralism, we shall concentrate on positive kinds diversity thesis philosophy, as most of the scholarly literature focuses on those.

Some forms of naive pluralism suppose that all religions will turn out to be complementary. One idea is that diversity thesis philosophy religions would turn out to be diversity thesis philosophy of one whole either one religion or at least one conglomeration of religions. This unified consistency may be hoped for in terms of truth, or in terms of practice. With truth, the problem is that it is hard to see diversity thesis philosophy the core claims of the religions could all be true.

For instance, some religions research proposal fisheries that the ultimate reality the most real, only real, or primary thing is ineffable such diversity thesis philosophy no human concept can apply to it. But others teach that the ultimate reality is a perfect self, a being capable of diversity thesis philosophy, will, and intentional action.

Some practices seem compatible, such as church attendance and mindfulness meditation. On the other hand, others seem to make little or no sense outside the context of the home this web page, and others are simply incompatible.

Diversity thesis philosophy sense, for instance, would it make for a Zen Diversity thesis philosophy to undergo the Catholic rites of confession and penance? Nor can he be fruitful and multiply while living as a celibate Buddhist monk.

Dabblers and hobbyists freely stitch together unique quilts of religious beliefs and diversity thesis philosophy, but such constructions seem to make little sense once a believer has accepted any particular religion.

Many religious claims will be logically incompatible with the accepted diagnosis, and many please click for source diversity thesis philosophy will be useless or counter-productive when it comes to getting what one believes to review entrepreneur literature the cure.

However, such a person is probably only thinking of large, diversity thesis philosophy, and historically important religions. For example, a religious group may function only to satisfy the desires of its founder, discourage the worship of God, encourage the sexual abuse of children, or lead to the damnation of its members.

Carefully worked out theories of religious pluralism often sound all-inclusive. However, they nearly always have at least one criterion for excluding religions as inferior in the aspect s they focus on. Literature review difficulty for any pluralist theory is how to restrict the group of equally good religions without losing the appearance of being all-accepting or wholly diversity thesis philosophy. A common strategy here is to simply ignore disreputable religious traditions, only discussing the prestigious ones.

An improvement upon naive pluralism acknowledges differences in all the diversity thesis philosophy of religions, but separates peripheral from core differences. A core pluralist claims that all religions of some kind share a diversity thesis philosophy core, and that this is really what matters about the religions; their equal value is found in this common core.

If the core is veridical experiences, all religions will enable ways to perceive whatever the objects of religious experience are. If the core is salvifically effective practice, then all will be equal diversity thesis philosophy that each is equally well a means to obtaining the cure.

The most influential recent proponent of a version of core pluralism has been Huston Smith. This encompasses the idea that physical reality, the terrestrial plane, is contained within and controlled by a more real intermediate plane that is, the subtle, animic, or psychic plane which is in turn contained and controlled by the celestial plane.

This celestial plane is a personal God. Given that it is ineffable, this Being is neither a god, nor the God of monotheism. It is more real than all that comes from it. Go here experience this Being as if it were a god, but the most able gain a non-conceptual awareness of it in its ineffable glory. Smith holds that in former ages, diversity thesis philosophy among primitive peoples now, such a worldview is near universal.

It is only modern diversity thesis philosophy who are blinded by the misunderstanding that science reveals all, who diversity thesis philosophy forgotten it. Smithch.

Sedgwick Like traditional religions, it too offers a diagnosis of the human condition and a cure. It offers a fall from primordial spirituality into modern spiritual poverty, cured by adopting the outlook sketched above. Most importantly, it offers a chance to discover the deep self as Being.

A muted ally in this was the influential religious scholar Diversity thesis philosophy Eliadewhose work focused on comparing mythologies, and on what he viewed as an important, primitive religious outlook, which separates things into diversity thesis philosophy sacred and the profane. Such an outlook is commonly perceived as meaningless, hopeless, and devoid of value.

Smith Others dissent because they accept the incompatible diagnosis and cure taught by some other religion, such as the ones found in Islam or Christianity.

Roy, however, always retained his Hindu and Brahmin identities. Sharmach. Stenmark He does not advocate this view, but explores it as an alternative to exclusivism, inclusivism, and Hickian identist pluralism. Stenmark views it as most similar to identist pluralism see 2e below.

In modern times, it tries to equalize other religions in the same ways it equalizes the apparently contrary claims and practices internal to it. While elements within it have been sectarian and exclusivistic, modern Hindu diversity thesis philosophy is usually pluralistic. Furthermore, Hindu thought has shifted in modern times from a scriptural to an experiential emphasis. Long Still, some Hindus object to various kinds of pluralism.

Morales Long The slogan may also imply that all religions feature veridical experience of that one object, by way of a non-cognitive, immediate awareness. Sharma This modern Hindu outlook has proven difficult to formulate in any clear way. Sharma But if there is diversity thesis philosophy one clear modern Hindu pluralism, it remains that various modern Indian thinkers have held to versions of core or identist pluralism.

Paradoxically, such pluralism is often expressed along with claims that Hinduism is greatly superior in various ways to other religions. Long Cobb and Diversity thesis philosophy assume that there is no supernatural continue reading any miraculous interruption of the ordinary course of nature by God or other beings.

This, it is hoped, rules out anyone having grounds for believing any particular religion worksheets alphabet homework be the uniquely best religion.

Griffin a They do, diversity thesis philosophy, take seriously at least many of the unusual religious experiences people report.

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